1. Focus coaching on values, not just performance: While values will never be fully aligned across an organisation, coherence can be established across teams within organisations. Coherence implies that a group of leaders are able collaboratively to make sense of and productively to address problems in their environment. Values allow for performance to be wisely directed and for value creation to be sustained in changing contexts. When addressing performance, focusing on iterations and continuous feedback, rather than on final solutions, allows leaders to achieve innovative results. Tim Brown, CEO of global design company Ideo, calls this ‘thinking by doing’. 2. Develop networks of leaders, not just leaders: Think of leadership as distributed across the organisation, not simply as an individual’s set of capabilities. Renowned leadership academic Mary Uhl-Bien says leadership is “a problem of enabling intellectual assets through distributed intelligence, rather than relying on the limited intelligence of a few brains at the top”. Leader development masquerading as leadership development puts not only businesses, but society at risk. While coaching is useful and even necessary for developing individual leaders, this application is not sufficient for the challenges that lie ahead. 3. Develop coaching as an internal competence: While external executive coaching is crucial for the development of leaders and teams, this is unlikely to be sufficient to meet the challenges lying ahead. For organisations to develop sufficient adaptive expertise, coaching capacity must be developed internally. As the rate of change increases and the nature of change becomes more turbulent, organisations must enhance their capacity to drive change from within. Daniel Goleman’s classic research into the effect of leadership styles on organisational climate and business performance demonstrated that coaching has a postive impact when used alongside a range of leadership styles. 4. Harvest ingenuity from coaching: Translating coaching capacity into ingenuity which can be harvested across the organisation is becoming increasingly important. Design-thinking academic Roger Martin refers to the knowledge funnel, a process which starts with posing a question, and moves all the way through to developing knowledge for value creation. Embedding coaching in the organisational culture, as well as building a means of creating coherence between coaching conversations and the organisational values and strategy, can support a knowledge funnel. In this way, coaching is simultaneously about developing talent and thereby the adaptive capacity, and about contributing to closing the ingenuity gap.